Nature

Mysterious World – Mariana Trench

 


Our World is full of natural treasures, some of them are revealed and some are still unrevealed yet.

Due to the curious nature of humans, humans always seek to stretch their limits and reach into the

ecosystem. 

How deep is our sea? This question forced us to discover the answer about the deepest trench in the

sea ever discovered.

 

Location 

It is located in western Pacific sea and east to the Mariana Islands. It is named after the nearby Mariana

Islands, Las Marianas was the Spanish Queen Mariana of Austria, widow of Philip IV of Spain

. These islands were tribute to the queen by naming it after her name.  


Discovery

Its crescent shaped oceanic structure 2550 km in length and 69 km in width and deepest known point

of

Challengerdeep.

In 1875, That was first when the deepest trench was sounded. That time it was sounded with weighted

rope and the depth recorded was 8,184 mtrs. In 1899 a converted coiler – USS Nero recorded its depth

at 9,636 mtrs. In 1951 a survey ship named Challenger II surveyed the trench by using Echo sounding

technique and recorded its depth of 10,900 meters which is known as Challenger deep

In Later years it was measured time to time with more advanced techniques and these sounding results

measured depth upto 11,521 meters but eventually in various measuring techniques da ta shows its

depth finalize upto 10,916 varies due to variation in pressure. 

If we compare the Mariana trench with the Highest peak of Mount Everest hypothetically, Than this

trench is surprisingly deeper around 2 km than Mount Everest. 

The standard atmospheric Pressure (SAP) is more than 1,071 times, in comparison of SAP at sea level.

  


The structure of Mariana Trench

It forms a gap between two tectonic plates. Here, the western edge of one plate (Pacific Plate), is

subducted beneath the other smaller plate (Mariana Plate) that lies to the west. Crustal material of

Pacific Plate is among the oldest known oceanic crust on earth (around 170 million years old) which

is highly cooler and denser in nature; whereas mariana plate crustal material is calculatively younger

and less denser in nature.  Mariana Islands were made due to movement of these tectonic plates. 


Records

Victor Lance Vescovo, a former American Naval Officer and an undersea explorer established a new

record to explore upto 10,928 metres on 28 April 2019. He became the first person to dive into

Challenger Deep more than once (four times) between 28th April to 5th May 2019. 

On 10th November 2020, the Chinese submersible Fendouzhe reached the bottom of the Mariana

Trench at a depth of 10,909 metres.


Life within mariana Trench

Explorers assumed that there must be no life at the bottom area at high pressure, but as they explored

more they were surprised more. Flatfish, Shrimp, living diatoms, sea cucumber, gigantic single-celled

amoebas, new species of snailfish, amphipods known as supergiants.

  

Our world is full of natural surprises. This is a surprise that life under water exists at more than 8000

meters where it is hard to survive but still life exists there. New discoveries will unhide more surprises

with time. 

   


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