Mysterious World – Mariana Trench
Our World is full of natural treasures, some of them are revealed and some are still unrevealed yet.
Due to the curious nature of humans, humans always seek to stretch their limits and reach into the
How deep is our sea? This question forced us to discover the answer about the deepest trench in the
sea ever discovered.
It is located in western Pacific sea and east to the Mariana Islands. It is named after the nearby Mariana
. These islands were tribute to the queen by naming it after her name.
Its crescent shaped oceanic structure 2550 km in length and 69 km in width and deepest known point
In 1875, That was first when the deepest trench was sounded. That time it was sounded with weighted
rope and the depth recorded was 8,184 mtrs. In 1899 a converted coiler – USS Nero recorded its depth
at 9,636 mtrs. In 1951 a survey ship named Challenger II surveyed the trench by using Echo sounding
technique and recorded its depth of 10,900 meters which is known as Challenger deep.
In Later years it was measured time to time with more advanced techniques and these sounding results
measured depth upto 11,521 meters but eventually in various measuring techniques da ta shows its
depth finalize upto 10,916 varies due to variation in pressure.
If we compare the Mariana trench with the Highest peak of Mount Everest hypothetically, Than this
trench is surprisingly deeper around 2 km than Mount Everest.
The standard atmospheric Pressure (SAP) is more than 1,071 times, in comparison of SAP at sea level.
The structure of Mariana Trench
It forms a gap between two tectonic plates. Here, the western edge of one plate (Pacific Plate), is
subducted beneath the other smaller plate (Mariana Plate) that lies to the west. Crustal material of
Pacific Plate is among the oldest known oceanic crust on earth (around 170 million years old) which
is highly cooler and denser in nature; whereas mariana plate crustal material is calculatively younger
and less denser in nature. Mariana Islands were made due to movement of these tectonic plates.
Victor Lance Vescovo, a former American Naval Officer and an undersea explorer established a new
record to explore upto 10,928 metres on 28 April 2019. He became the first person to dive into
Challenger Deep more than once (four times) between 28th April to 5th May 2019.
On 10th November 2020, the Chinese submersible Fendouzhe reached the bottom of the Mariana
Trench at a depth of 10,909 metres.
Life within mariana Trench
Explorers assumed that there must be no life at the bottom area at high pressure, but as they explored
more they were surprised more. Flatfish, Shrimp, living diatoms, sea cucumber, gigantic single-celled
amoebas, new species of snailfish, amphipods known as supergiants.
Our world is full of natural surprises. This is a surprise that life under water exists at more than 8000
meters where it is hard to survive but still life exists there. New discoveries will unhide more surprises
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